Power, Resistance, Identities and Social Movements, Spring 2021 Syllabus

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POWER, RESISTANCE, IDENTITY & SOCIAL MOVEMENTS (PRISM)* 

Professor Ruth O’Brien

Office 5200.01 Hours: Thurs. 5:00-6:00 PM on Blackboard Collaborate and by appointment 

robrien@gc.cuny.edu 

rev. Feb. 3, 2021

Course Description: 

This course focuses on individual forms of socially constructed identity (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality, disability, and humanness or bodies), intersectional forms of identity (e.g., gender and bodies), and collective forms of identity (e.g., citizen, worker or labor, and anarchist collectives or horizontal non- state civil movements, referred to as social movements in American politics). 

It explores how these identities affect power and resistance, as understood by social theorists and contemporary philosophers such as Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, and Judith Butler, who in turn draw upon Gilles Deleuze, Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Michel Foucault, Antonio Gramsci, Karl Marx, and G. W. F. Hegel, among others. 

It examines the impact these ideas have by exploring the epistemology/ontology intersection. It looks at how social theory helps social movements strategize. It manifests Ideas in Action and (Re)Action. 

This course is cross-listed with Urban Education, American Studies, and International Studies, and it is especially pertinent for M.A. students in Political Science, because it offers theories and then applications to help students exploring writing an M.A. thesis or capstone project. 

Several social movements will be explored as case studies. First, we will consider the worldwide struggle to end political and social violence against women (including #MeTooism), and if/how it is having global impact. We will examine, for example, the Combahee River Collective — an organization of Black feminists who attained international reach by coining the term “identity politics” — and assess the movement’s global impact, as seen for instance in “Women’s Internationalism against Global Patriarchy,” by Dilar Dirik (and PM Press). 

Second, we will consider American school desegregation in urban education as a precursor to income inequality under neoliberalism — or, put more simply: How white flight meant the Democrats abandoned one of their main constituencies during and after the Great Society. This is a historical case study from the 1970s. 

Each social movement, whether left or right — insurgency or counterinsurgency, horizontal or vertical — navigates juxtapositions that can save or harm or have a boomerang effect. 

This seminar is an American Politics course that helps students prepare for Social Movements, Political Parties and Interest Groups in the Elections and Behavioral Component of the American Politics field. It also helps students in American Political Thought since social movements and interest groups are vehicles 

of change that influence governance from the outside, whereas political parties reside both in and outside the government. 

Furthermore, social movements also operate on the level of discourse (or the creation of epistemology/ ontology or public opinion) — what many call cultures, epistemes, beliefs, values, traditions, and ideologies. For this reason, it is useful for students in American Political Thought (APT) and American Political Development (APD). 

Required Books:

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, assembly Heretical Thought book (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Catherine Rottenberg, The Rise of Neoliberal Feminism, Heretical Thought (Oxford University P, 2018). 

Jane Caputi, Call Your“Muttha”: A Deliberately Dirty Minded Manifesto for the Earth Mother in the Anthropocene (Oxford University Press, 2020)

PRISM — Written Assignments (A blogging site will be created on CUNY Academic Commons or BB that is closed so as to include only our seminar)

3 Blog and Short Paper Sheet on Social Movement 

For the blogs, which by definition are short pieces of rhetoric, think of the social movement you selected as if you are the founding president of this social movement. You have a membership today of one. Now, how can you gain enough members to call it a fledgling movement?  I have included a number of manifestos in the seminar so you know what inspires folks.

Blog 1 — Create social movement by elite, mass, that is horizontal or hierarchical — you decide and explain. You are the first elite of this movement, calling all the shots. A social movement is fundamentally different from an expert, an interest group, or a political party — all of which have the same purpose of changing governance or ridding society of what these vehicles of change perceive as injustice. 

The first blog is designed to gain attention or capture a small, single audience of members who agree with your perspective as the founding president. Most social movements do not keep one president though but open it up once it has enough members to be governed by some type of small group or a vanguard. 

A tried and true method of finding the smallest, most cohesive audience who will agree with you enough to join your movement is an inverse pyramid. Feature the most outrageous offense by your opposition that will garner you enough attention or interest to possible mobilize your first members or entice them enough to pay attention and contemplate joining. Start small with a clearly defined small goal so as a person who hopes to create a group that turns into a movement you can claim success. 

Not only should you select something totally outrageous but it should be easily documented or hard to dispute. This is why a static pictures or a short clip or moving picture of events like live streaming the police murdering people for no reason are often catalysts of groups that can turn into movements. By correlating this outrageous injustice with a relatively small, beginning first stab at reform or defining what your goal of reform is sometimes works. 

Avoid defining who can and cannot or who should or should not be in your group that hopes to become a movement as this can alienate potential members. Social movement membership can not grow without trust. Allow your movement to grow organically. Chances are you are not the first person to cite this social injustice so there are competing movements, and few people join more than one movement. 

Many a movement get stymied or scuttled because of sectarian battles, or the big event or the match that started the fire didn’t end up burning in the right direction toward your goal. A sectarian battle is an internal conflict among members. For instance, socialists fight over the type of socialism they prefer rather than uniting as being anti-capitalist. Mobilizing members by uniting against your common enemy is key. To be a Democratic Socialist, a Dutch Socialist, a Trotsky Socialist, a Lenin-Marxist-Socialist or a Rosa Luxembourg Socialist is less important than mobilizing members on by announcing why you are anticapitalist. In other words, avoid internal battles until you’re a large, stable movement (which is almost a contradiction in terms). Successful social movements often get absorbed in political parties, or turn into interest groups. 

Appeal to members on the basis of who you as the first member define as your external enemy.
The third blog justifies or explains why you selected the tactics or strategy that you did and how it will appeal to your membership. This means you’re offering an explanation as to why the potential member will have success joining you as opposed to another movement fighting the same social injustice. 

Blog 2 – Appeal to Membership — do you go by topic all interested in but not enough to stop and challenge the issue. Is it enough to find an injustice? For instance, social media is like a social movement with no goal other than monetizing things or seeking gaining attention for the person who sent the image or text. It also offers everyone, not just those who went viral, with how convenient it is. Privacy is what all surrender. To get rid of social media is difficult since privacy concerns only hard those who have the state or their employer, for instance, noticing what they post and then harming them. The European “right to forget” effort succeeded more than let’s stop Facebook from posting biased content. 

Blog 3 — Winning Strategy — outline what will work, given your type of movement with what scale of topic you have in mind, and what type of membership you anticipate being receptive to the goals of your social movement. You cannot invent something out of whole cloth so you can come up with a historical example or a contemporary one of a similar social movement you hoped to emulate. If you do not have examples from your type or topic of a movement then, use examples from a similar successful movement that exists today. For instance, why did the NAACP select Rosa Parks and her boycott succeeded whereas the earlier attempts failed? 

Writing tips:
Blogs have no jargon. Start out with a catchy one or two line opening. End with something appealing that hooks the reader into reading the next blog. 

Short Paper — this should be written like a dissertation proposal or the first chapter of an MA — 5 to 7 pages single line with topic dividers, not double pages. Be sure to have a 2 to 3 page bibliography that does not count as the 5 to 7 pages. 

Composition or Headings Suggestions
1. Overall Description (abstract-like, no more than 1 page) 

2. Short Literature Review (1-2 pages) 3. Social Movement creation(1 page). 

4. Social Movement mobilization through membership and resources, such as monies, grants, and donors. (2 to 3 pages.) 

5. Significance of this movement. Will it fulfill its mission or stated purpose? Is your mission too large given the size of your membership? 

Bibliography — what literatures matter most to you. Feel free to use some of the literature from our class, but not more than 5-ish works. 

Short Paper Writing Voice or Tone Tips:
Remember to give positive and negative attributes to each method of mobilization, each strategy, and each tactic. Also how it is that a movement can be born, since most topics are there but have not enough interest to become a social movement. A social movement is different than an interest group or a political party. 

When you get to your winning strategy be sure to give your theory of social movements — Hegelian, Marxian, De Tocquevillean, Gramscian, including modern incarnations of Gramsci, such as Foucault, Deleuze, Butler, Hall, Hardt and Negri or Tomba. Did your membership respond to oppression by the common enemy, or hope? 

Also, remember to discuss vital issues such as false consciousness, who attacks what first, such as the van guard or elites leading mass movement or interest group like movement. You can differentiate what type of movement by determining who is your membership, and why they will respond to your call to membership given your description of a crisis or a problem that is worthy of their attention. Is it a horizontal movement? One inspired by an event such as a Supreme Court nominee or failed nominee, like Clarence Thomas’s nomination? Or is it a small movement created by a group of like minded reformers who want to make headway in the courts like the NAACP’s pre 1950s strategy or what is outlined in legal mobilization theory with pay equity cases? 

For a good overview of what a social movement is see Michael McMann, Frances Fox Piven, and # Jane McAlevey, No Shortcuts: Organizing for Power in the New Gilded Age (Oxford University Press, 2016), chps 1, 2, 7; Frances Fox Piven, Poor People’s Movements (Any edition) Intro or Chapter 1; Donald T. Critchlow, Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman’s Crusade (Princeton University Press, 2005); Sidney Tarrow, “Modular Collective Action and the Rise of the Social Movement: Why the French Revolution was Not Enough,” Politics & Society 21 (1993): 69-90; Joshua Cohen and Joel Rogers, “Secondary Associations and Democratic Governance,” Politics and Society 20 (1992): 393-472; and Michael McMann, Rights at Work: Pay Equity Reform and the Politics of Legal Mobilization (University of Chicago Press, 1994), chapters 1, 2, & 8. 

Weight of Requirements: 

Three blogs — Idea Impact Strategy Position Papers (WordPress page or blog size between 300 and 700 worlds) = 1/3rd

Short Final Paper of 5 to 7 pages background or historiography of social movement of your choice = 1/3rd

Seminar participation = 1/3rd weekly reading notes, and one or more class presentations All are weighed equally.

Seminar Community: 

The class decides on what type of participatory structure we create, including bringing in outlines and sharing notes from the previous session. I teach from a Paolo Frere, Pedagogy of the Oppressed perspective. 

Absences: More than two absences will result in having points deducted from your participation grade.

Incompletes: Incompletes are a privilege, not a right. If you are having trouble completing the course requirements, you must inform me well before the end of the semester if you expect to ask for an incomplete. 

Privacy: No taping or recording of any kind other than note taking is permitted without my permission in writing as well as permission from all participants at each session.  Printed hard-copy notes in terms of reflections and outlines sharing are encouraged for peer learning. Student privacy will be protected.

Syllabus Changes: The instructor reserves the right to revise this syllabus when and where necessary. Revisions will be announced and posted on Blackboard. The assignments stay the same. Articles downloaded from ProjectMuse unless indicated. If the link does not work try opening in a new window.

Part I: THEORIES OF CHANGE/OPPRESSION/EXPLOITATION/& REVOLUTION 

Week 1. Thurs. Feb. 4 

Introduction

Week 2. Thurs., Feb. 11 

Dominant Theories: Karl Marx & Alexis DeTocqueville 

Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach (http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.htm); Alexis de Tocqueville. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. New York: Anchor Books (1955) – Translated by Stuart Gilbert or any edition of Volume One Book 1, Book 3. 

Recommended: Aglaia Kiarina Kordela, “Marx’s Update of Cultural Theory,”Cultural Critique, 65 (2007): 43-66. 

Week 3. Thurs., Feb. 18 

Hegemony: Economies of Violence & Happy Slaves & Social Movement Classics 

-Machiavelli http://www.emachiavelli.com/history2copy.htm#THE PRINCE; G. W. F. Hegel, Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, trans. T. M. Knox (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 15, 18, 20, 30, 32, 39, 48, 53, 68, 162, 221, 241, 261 (Werke, 7:31, 39, 41, 72, 78, 99, 123-24, 142, 145, 183, 305, 409, 510) pp references where Hegel analyzes forms of domination and work, distinguishing between classical slavery and medieval serfdom); Antonio, Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, Edited and translated by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International, 1971), 123-205; Frances Fox Piven & Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements (1979), chp. 1; Charles Tilly, Social Movements (2004), chp 1. 

Recommended:
G.W. F. Hegel, The Philosophy of History, trans. J. Sibree (New York: Dover Publications, 1956), 229- 30, 254-55, 256, 262, 287, 300, 301, 309, 312, 315-16, 334, 339 (Werke, 12:282-83, 311, 313, 320, 349, 364, 366, 375, 379, 382-83, 403-4, 410). (pp references where Hegel analyzes forms of domination and work, distinguishing between classical slavery and medieval serfdom); Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement, 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, (2011) chp. 1 

Recommended Exercise: Reverse citations: Intellectual Impact TBA 

Week 4. Thurs., Feb. 25 

Foucault Butler & Freedom

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Trans. Alan Read chapters “The Body of the Condemned” and “Docile Bodies” (New York: Vintage Books, 1977);  Precarity: Judith Butler’s Reluctant Universalism in Remains of the Social: Desiring the Post- Apartheid, edited by Van Bever Donker Maurits, Truscott Ross, Minkley Gary, and Lalu Premesh,  92-116 ( Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2017) Project Muse Oneself ; Mari Ruti, “The Ethics of ; Judith Butler, Giving an Account of  https://dl.uswr.ac.ir/bitstream/Hannan/132067/1/0823225038%20-%20Judith%20Butler%20- %20Giving%20an%20Account%20of%20Oneself%20-%20Fordham%20University%20Press.pdf 

Recommended:
Judith Buter, Precarious life: The powers of mourning and violence. London: Verso 2004; Michel Foucault, “The Ethics of Care for the Self as a Practice of Freedom,” The Final Foucault. Eds. James Bernauer and David Rasmussen (Cambridge: The MIT
 Press, 1988), 1-20

Part II: HORIZONTAL ORGANIZING & HERETICAL THOUGHT

Week 5. Thurs. March 4 

Politics, Post Structuralism, & Political Culture 

Stuart Hall, “Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms.” Media, Culture, and Society 2 (1980): 57; Kundai Chirindo, “Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Approaches to the Obama Presidency: Rhetoric and Public Affairs 19 No. 3 (2016):49; Jeffrey Checkel, Jeffrey Friedman, Matthias Matthijs, and Rogers Smith, Roundtable on Ideational Turns in the Four Subdisciplines of Political Science,” Critical Review Vol. 28, Issue 2, (2016); Ruth O’Brien, Out of Many One, Chp. 1; Ruth O’Brien, Bodies in Revolt, Chp. 1 

Recommended Anne Norton, 95 Theses on Politics, Culture, & Method and The Flight from Reality in the Human Sciences: Anne Norton On the Muslim Question (Public Square PUP book) 

Week 6. Thurs. March 12 

Ethics & Power 

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, assembly Heretical Thought book (Oxford University Press, 2017), pp. 1-57; Massimiliano Tomba, Insurgent Universality: An Alternative Legacy of
Modernity Heretical Thought book (permission of author, Preface and Chapter 1); Desert Manifesto https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/anonymous-desert 

Part III. THE INDIVIDUAL/THE SELF, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION & IDENTITY 

Week 7. Thurs. March 18 

Feminism, Intersectionality, Cosmopolitanism, and Social Construction – Failed Movements 

Catherine Rottenberg, The Rise of Neoliberal Feminism, Heretical Thought (Oxford University P, 2018). Preface, Chapter 1-2; Gloria Anzaldua’s This Bridge Called my Back The Gloria Anzaldua Reader (Duke University Press, 2009); Anne-Marie Slaughter with permission from he author; SCUM Manifesto

Part IV. IDEA IMPACT 

Week 8. Thurs., March 25 

Race & Ethnic Identity Cultural Studies & Citizenship and Other “isms” & “Immutable” Category

Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1974), Introduction; Ira Katznelson, “When Is Affirmative Action Fair? On Grievous Harms and Public Remedies,” Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 2, (Summer 2006), pp. 541-568; Jane Caputi, Call Your“Muttha”: A Deliberately Dirty Minded Manifesto for the Earth Mother in the Anthropocene (Oxford University Press, 2020), TBA.

Recommended: Bruce Miroff, “Movement Activists and Party Insurgents,” Studies in American Political Development 21 (2007): 92. 

Part IV. Theories of Freedom/Resistance 

Week 9. Thurs. April 8
Foucault (Governmentality; Territorality; Precarity)

Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972- 1977 TBA
Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, assembly Heretical Thought book (Oxford University Press, 2017), Part IV. Catherine Rottenberg, The Rise of Neoliberal Feminism, Heretical Thought (Oxford University Press, 2018), Chapter 6; Google scholar:  WARN Manifesto, SCUM Manifesto, INCITE!

Week 10. Thurs. April 15 

Combahee River Collective 

Dilar Dirik, “Women’s Internationalism against Global Patriarchy.” The Combahee River Collective. “A Black Feminist Statement.” WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly 42, no. 3 (2014): 271- 280; Kristen A. Kolenz and Krista L. Benson and Judy Tzu-Chun Wu and Leslie Bow et. al. “Combahee River Collective Statement: A Fortieth Anniversary Retrospective” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 38, no. 3 (2017): 164-189; Anne Enke, ”Troubling Feminism, Troubling Race.” Reviews in American History 34, no. 4 (2006): 544-550. 

Recommended Classics: See American Politics First Examination reading list in GC library.  On it are some of the following: Doug McAdam, Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 2nd ed. U. Chicago Press, (1999); *Russell Dalton, Citizen Politics, 6th ed. CQ Press, (2016); *David S. Meyer, The Politics of Protest: Social Movements in America, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2014; *David S. Meyer and Suzanne Staggenborg, “Movements, Countermovements, and the Structure of Political Opportunity,” American Journal of Sociology 101 (1996), 1628-60. 

Part VI. Ideas in (Re)Action, (Re)(In)sistance in Reality (Not Virtually)? 

Week 11. Thurs. April 22. 

Combahee River Collective compared to #metooism 

Fowlkes, Diane L. “Moving from Feminist Identity Politics to Coalition Politics through a Feminist Materialist Standpoint of Intersubjectivity in Gloria Anzaldúa’s Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza.” Hypatia 12, no. 2 (1997): 105-24; Nikol G. Alexander-Floyd, and Evelyn M. Simien. “Revisiting “What’s in a Name?”: Exploring the Contours of Africana Womanist Thought.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 27, no. 1 (2006): 67-89; Sarah Bracke. “The Unbearable Lightness of ‘Gender and Diversity’.” DiGeSt. Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies 1, no. 1 (2014): 41-50; #BLM manifesto

Week 12. Thurs., April 29. 

Desegregation and Income Inequality under Neoliberalism 

Michael Biggs, Michael, and Kenneth T. Andrews. “Protest Campaigns and Movement Success: Desegregating the U.S. South in the Early 1960s.” American Sociological Review 80, no. 2 (2015): 416- 43; Natalie G. Adams, and James H. Adams. ““Hell No, We Won’t Go”: Protest and Resistance to School Desegregation.” In Just Trying to Have School: The Struggle for Desegregation in Mississippi, 167-87 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2018). Daniel Martinez Hosang, “The Changing Valence of White Racial Innocence: Black- Brown Unity in the 1970s Los Angeles School Desegregation Struggles.” In Black and Brown in Los Angeles: Beyond Conflict and Coalition, edited by Kun Josh and Pulido Laura, 115-42. University of California Press, 2014; Michael J. Dumas, “Contesting White Accumulation in Seattle: Toward a Materialist Antiracist Analysis of School Desegregation.” In The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools: Mendez, Brown, and Beyond, by Bowman Kristi L. and Ryan James E. (Michigan State University Press, 2015), 291-312. 

Week 13. Thurs., May 6 Class Presentations 

Week 14. Thurs., May 14 — Last Day of Classes Class Presentations 

MORE RECOMMENDED READING & RESOURCES

Michel Foucault, The Birth of BioPolitcs, Lectures at the College of France, 1978-79 Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. Kyoo Lee. “Rethinking with Patricia Hill Collins: A Note Toward Intersectionality as Interlocutory Interstitiality.” The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 26, no. 2 (2012): 466-473 (New York: Penguin, 2004); David Farrell Krell, “Bodies of Black Folk: From Kant and Hegel to Du Bois and Baldwin,” boundary 27 (2000): 103-34; Gretchen Ritter. “Silver Slippers and a Golden Cap: Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Historical Memory in American PoliticsJournal of American Studies31(1997): 171-202; Kenneth Stikkers, “An Outline of Methodological Afrocentrism, with Particular Application to the Thought of W.E. DuBois,” The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 22 (2008) 40-49; James C. Davies, “Toward a Theory of Revolution,” American Sociological Review 27 (1962); 5-19; Cheryl Welch DeTocqueville (OUP 2001);Donald E. Pease, “After the Tocqueville Revival; or, The Return of the Political,” Boundary 26 (1999): 87-114; James Livingston, “’Marxism’ and the Politics of History: Reflections on the Work of Eugene D. Genovese,” Radical History Review 88 (2004): 30-48; Sheldon S. Wolin, Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought, (Enlarged Edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004); Perry Anderson, “The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci,” New Left Review 100 (1975-76): 5–78; Sheldon Wolin, “Machiavelli and the Politics and Economy of Violence,” in Wolin, ed., Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought (New York, 1960); John McCormick, “Machiavellian Democracy: Controlling Elites with Ferocious Populism,” American Political Science Review 95 (June 2001): 297-314; Timohy J. Lukes, “Lionizing Machiavelli,” American Political Science Review, 95 (2001): 561-75; Mark Poster, Existential Marxism in Postwar France: From Sartre to Althusser (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975); Michael S. Roth, Knowing and History: Appropriations of Hegel in Twentieth- Century France (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988); Judith Butler, Subjects of Desire: Hegelian Reflections in Twentieth-Century France (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987); Shadia B. Drury, Alexandre Kojève: The Roots of Postmodern Politics (Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1994); Andrew Cole, “What Hegel’s Master/Slave Dialectic Really Mean,” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 34 (2004): 577-610; Anderson, Perry, “The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci,” New Left Review 100 (1976-77): 5–7; Brady Thomas Heiner, “The Passions of Michel Foucault,” differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 14 (2003): 22-52; Claire Colebrook, “The Sense of Space: On the Specificity of Affect in Deleuze and Guattari, Postmodern Culture 15 (2004); Judith Butler, “Politics, Power and Ethics: A Discussion between Judith Butler and William Connolly,” Theory & Event 4 (2000); Stephane Symons, “Deleuze and the Various Faces of the Outside,” Theory & Event 9 (2006); Slavoj Žižek, “Organs without Bodies: On Deleuze and Consequences,” (New York: Routledge, 2004); Gilles Deleuze, “Kant: Synthesis and Time,” lecture of 14 March 1978 trans. Melissa McMahon on the web at http://www.webdeleuze.com/php/ sommaire.html.Obtained 1/6/2004.; Stuart Hall, “Cultural Identity and Diaspora.” Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathon Rutherford (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1990); 222-37; Peter Hallward, “Deleuze and the ‘World without Others.’” Philosophy Today (1997): 530-44; Nicholas Brown and Imre Szeman. “The Global Coliseum: On Empire: An Interview with Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri,” Cultural Studies 16 (2002): Nicholas Brown and Imre Szeman “What is the Multitude? Questions for Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri” Cultural Studies 19 (2005): 372-87; Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice (Harvard University Press, 1993); Susan Stanford Friedman, “Periodizing Modernism: Postcolonial Modernities and th Space/Time Borders of Modernist Studies,” Modernism/Modernity 13 (2006): 425-43 Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment (Routledge, 2008, 1990); Lynn Huffer, “Foucault’s Ethical Ars Erotica,” SubStance 38 (2009): 125-47; Ian Hacking, The social construction of what? (Harvard University Press, 1999); Allison Weir, “Home and Identity: In Memory of Iris Marion Young,” Hypatia 23 (2008)4-21; Homi K. Bhabha, The Location of Culture (New York: Routledge, 1994);Homi K. Bhabha, “Statement for the Critical Inquiry Board Symposium.” Critical Inquiry 30.2 (2003): 342-49; Ernesto Laclau, “Can Immanence Explain Social Struggles?” Empire’s New Clothes: Reading Hardt and Negri Eds. Paul A. Passavant and Jodi Dean (New York: Routledge, 2004)

*pending revision
Feb. 3 rev. (version with assignment outlined in detail)